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(La)TeX and Graphics

Table of contents

For graphics softwares, see the Helper applications.

Coerence between text and formula (character and symbols)

Before check coerence between text and pictures, need to keep text coerent to the formula. In general, the picture as considered as additional elemento for document, but the formula are considered as part of document, requrering higjt coerence.
Note that not all fonts has symbols necessary to compose mathematical formulas. Thus need caution for this for document that use formulas. The default font for LaTex is Computer Modern and the AMS symbols (amssymb -- amsfonts is the part of it) is compatible with Computer Modern, as other large kind of additional symbol sets. For almost work, the Computer Modern plus AMS symbols are sufficient to produce text with formula, but remember that not all symbols are compatible with Computer Modcdern, such as Euler symbol fonts (note that the Knuth developed the Concrete font specially to use Euler symbol font).
In the case of times font included by default on LaTeX (PSNFSS), will produce basic formulas (equivalent as LaTeX without additional packages), but the AMS equivalent does not allowed. In way to solve this problem, the txfonts (times) and  pxfonts (palatino) has created, cantainning all characters and symbols equavalent to  Computer Modern + AMS + several additional symbol sets compatible for computer Modern.
Using this, the Computer Modern and Times/Palatino will used to produce any kind of documents, keepping very coerence between text and formulas.
In the other kind of font sets such as Concreta+Euler, will produce mathematical document, if specific symbols are not required. Several font sets available such as bookman, utopia, charter, etc does not included symbols necessary to produce mathematical formulas and it is substituted by Computer Modern or si ilar if necessary. These fonts is only suitable for non mathematical documents that require only simplest formulas. In way to discover if these fonts are suitable for your document, need to perform test, checking the font set used (text, formulas, symbols, etc). the  XeTeX permit to use fonts available on operationg systems and will use very large kind of additional fonts than normal LaTeX, but the caution is similar to the above comments.

Coerence between pictures and text

Minimal Exigence

Before thinking on the coerence, need to obtain minimal quality of picture itself. The minimal requirement is to have acpetable picture quality, independent of coerence telative to the text.
In way to obtain picture with quality, use vector graphics editor like inkscape (for illustrations) and dia (diagrams). To produce picture from datsa or expressions,
use apropraite apprications like gnuplot and SciDAVis. If possible, do not use the Office suite (keep in mind that objective of Office suite and scientific applications is very different).
Itf are using bitmap images, use around 600dpi for technical illustrations and 300dpi for pictures without sharpness of drawings 9such as photo realistic images).
The convention is to use solid curves to picture, dotted lines to auxiliar ones, and hatched lines for element in constructions. The importance of elements will differenciated using tickness or color, according to contrast rule. Is recomended to place text in horizontal or vertical without other angles.
The format accepted officially for DVI is the postscript (eps/ps) and for PDF (pdflatex) is the pdf/jpeg/png. In the case of using dvipdfm/dvipdfmx, the format is of the DVI/dvips ones (eps), not of the PDF ones (pdf/jpeg/png).
In way to insert jpeg image on DVI/PS, convert to eps using the imagemagick or similar, performing encapsulation to made acdeptable by LaTeX.
If use file name without extension on \includegraphics and keep picture in the format eps and pdf (or jpeg/png) at same time, will compile to DVI or PDF without problem.

Standard Coerence

In general, the journal and publishers demands that the font size used inside picture is similar to the body text. When the font size inside picture is same of the document, keep scale change minor than 20%. Instead  the use of width/height, use the scale factor to have this control. In way to keep scale fasctor minor than 20% (0.8 to 1.2), made picture near to the desired size (use comparation with paper size that picture editor normally show) and same font size as the body text.

inserting mathematical formula and/or keepping font coerent: The almost publisher acept the font family of picture different of the body text, the coerence of font family will solved in the same manner to insert formula insidxe picture.
The some of most used ones to perform this is the ise of insscape with textext plugin and the use of psfrag.

Hight Coerence

the standard line tickness is the 1pt=1/72 inch that is aproximatelly 0.35mm. In way to keep coerence with text and other pictures, need to keep line tickness. In general, the "scale tools" of picture editor for ilustrations such as inkscape, Adobe Illustrator (comercial), Corel Draw (comercial), etc. change the line tichness too. In the scientific ilustrations, is is the diagram like, isto é., the line tickness is depend of the importance of the element and not of the size of the picture. Thus, the size change need to be performed using only the "node tools", but it is not easy to perform on complex drawings. By this, need to create the apropriate size when drawings. The diagram editor like dia and xfig lack or dificult the use of tols that change line tickness in inapropriate way. The specialized editor for LaTeX such as LaTeXDraw and jpgfDraw permit scale change of element without changing the line tickness, but not all of the editor that export LaTeX code works in this form. Some of this is created to insert mathematical formula inside picture and use LaTex for this. In this case, the coerence of line tickness is not the case.
If want all control, will want to generate picture in the LaTex code. In this case, expected thsat the picture generated by editor is almost human readable/editable. Since large kind of scientific applications support LaTeX code with pstrick, the use of LaTeXDraw help these persons. If understand the pstrick package, will edit the generated code. For example, some apropriate adjustment  of LaTeXDraw's output produce full scalable picture keepping line tickness.

Graphical package for LaTeX

Depending of the illustrations, need to use apropriate package due to their complexity. Other case is to keep only one source file (no separate picture). Note that the use of graphical package keep hight coerence of picture and body text, but it will prodeuced by use of eps/pdf if performed by cautin.
For graphics softwares, see the Helper Applications.