Brief History of TeX
What are TeX/LaTeX/Omega,etc
- "TeX is a typesetting program designed for high-quality composition
of material that contains a lot of mathematical and technical
- "LATEX is a macro package which enables authors to typeset and print
work at the highest typographical quality, using a predefined,
- AMS-(La)TeX are the macro
developed by AMS (American Mathematical
to prepare publications that contain large contents of mathematics.
are TeX format and AMS-LaTeX works on LaTeX. See more information on http://www.ams.org/tex/.
is the set of macros developed by GNU
to generate printed and online documents ("Info file", HTML, plain text,
etc) using only one source file.The TeX will compile this file using
- PDF(La)TeX is
the version of (La)TeX that generate PDF document directly from TeX
is the extended version of (La)TeX with additional functionality.
- omega is
the version of TeX that support the unicode that permit typeset several
documents, such as arabic, japanese, chinesem etc. The format LaTeX
to omega is called Lambda.
- Jade is the tools to
process document writeen in DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and
Language) that is the ISO standard to format SGML(Standard
Markup Language) documents such as DocBook.
The jade convert theses
documents to HTML, PDF, RTF, TeX, etc. The jadeTeX
are the macro for TeX
to process jade output (XML is the subset of SGML. HTML is SGML
- NTS (new
Typesetting System) is the new typeset sistem, developed to sbstitute
in the future. Seems that it support plain TeX and LaTeX macro.
- LuaTeX is TeX that support Lua
script language to implement extensions. The project started in
2005 poduced significant beta version in 2007.
- XeTeX is TeX that support
native font (font installed on hoster system).
Brief history of TeX
"kanuti") of Stanford University
the specialist in programing art (he is mathematic too). In year 1977, he
had discuting and experimenting the digital document typeset. In this year,
the editor that will publish their seccond volum of The
art of computer
sended the preprint of book. Deceptioned by their bad
quality, Kunuth decide to concretize their idea: Implementation of efficient
computer sistem for document typesetting, called TeX (pronunce: "tech")
Since the apropriate font for tecnical and cientific documents does not
he decide to design n fonts and implement the efficient font sistem for TeX.
This font are called Computer Modern and the font system are called meta
The first TeX system are ended in 1982 and the metafont system in 1984. The
Computer Modern font are ended one year after these, in 1985. The macro
used by Kunuth to typeset their book are distributed together the TeX and
called plain TeX..
The TeX system are formed by set of applications to process document in
and efficient manner, but the knowledge for document layort are required
in way to produce best document. In way to permit to author typeset
quality document without specific knowledge on document layort, the project
to develop new macro for TeX are started. The head of these group is
of DEC ( Digital Equipment
Corporation), specialist in computer programming (LTA - logic of temporal
actions, used to model cuncurrent and reactive systems). The project are
ended in 1985 and this macro are called "LaTeX" (pronunce: "la-tech").
The LaTeX 3 project headed by Frank Mittelbach made several change on LaTeX
developed by Lamport, making bug fixes and implementing new macros. The
3 team publish LaTeX2e (pronunce: "latech two e") in 1994.
- The "LaTeX 3" project are
headed by Frank Mittelbach and Chris Rowley. This project continue to
bug fix, implementation of new macros, and documenting the LaTeX. Thus,
recomended that the LaTeX macro are updated every years.
- The TeX version are converging to "pi". The actual version is 3.14159?
- The Lamport is the research member of MicroSoft,
Resume of events
- 1977: motivated by bad typographical quality of their book,
art of Computer Programming", volum 2, Kunuth decide to implement TeX
- 1978: first prototype of TeX.
- 1978: The MetaFont (format used to TeX's font) project started.
- 1979: Euler project started in way to develop mathematical fonts
is one of member).
- 1980: first prototype of "Computer Modern" fonts.
- 1980: the TUG (TeX User Group) started.
- 1981: first version of Web system (document typesetting system used
by TeX). After some changes, are denominated Web83.
- 1982: first version of TeX (version 0)
- 1982: Kunuth start the book "The TeX Book"
- 1983: TeX version 1.
- 1984: "The TeX Book" (Donald Kunuth) is published.
- 1984: first version of MetaFont (version 0)
- 1984: Kunuth start the book "MetaFont Book".
- 1985: The "Computer Modern" font finished.
- 1985: Lamport finished the LaTeX (version 2.09)
- 1986: TeX version 2
- 1986: "The Metafont Book" (Donald Kunuth) is published.
- 1989: Now, TeX support 8 bits character.
- 1990: TeX version 3
- 1994: LaTeX2e are published by "LaTeX 3" team (headed by Frank
- 1994: The book "A Document Preparation System" (Laslie Lamport) on
2.09 is published.
- 1994: The book "The LaTeX Companion" (M. Goosses, F. Mittelbach and
A. Samarin) over LaTeX2e are published.
- 1999: Released version 1.0 of LyX.
"Young Ryu" publish the complete Post Script font set, based on Times,
called txfonts. Now, the complete symbols is available on Times
too (at this time, only Computer Modern had all symbols).
In Dezember, 01 of 2003, stabilished the 10-th aniversary version of
extended TeX (as eTeX and PDFTeX) becames recomended. The pict2e
becames usable (not the virtual package now), utf8 is supported
officially by TeX.
- 2004: The book "The LaTeX Companion, seccond Edition" (M. Goosses, F.
A. Samarin) are published.
syncTeX for forwardx/inverse search on PDF (and other formats, if
viewer support it) are ported from MaCOSX to linux and windows (TeXLive
and MikTeX): The TeXWorks
(cross platform and open source)
started to implement unicode editor+viewer with syncTeX support. Before
these, syncTeX are popular only on MaCOSX, but now (2010), the Okular (linux) and sumatraPDF
(Windows) has syncTeX support. The embeeded PDF viewer of TeXMaker/TeXStudio (crossplatform, open
source), TeXWorks, and gummu (linux. windows in
works) support syncTeX too.
- 2008: XeTeX (with system
font support) ported from MacOSX to linux and windows (by projetcs TeXLive
- 2010: Fisrt stable version of LuaTeX.
- 2016: LuaTeX 1.0 is released.
The tendence of TeX
Actually, the LaTeX will produce best PDF document, using tools such as
PDFTeX and PDFLaTeX, and there exist several converters to generate document
as HTML and RTF (Rich Text Format acepted by MS Word and compatibles).
there exist seveal convetors of other formats to LaTeX. See the site http://www.tug.org/utilities/texconv/
There exist other macros than LaTeX such as ConTeXt
(general purpose macro such as plain TeX) and LaTeX classes such as
that are distributed by several TeX systems. Moreover, the other typeset
system are developed, with profissional typesetting, such as NTS (New
system) and Jade
document writeen in DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification
for Standard Generalized Markup Language. XML is the subset of SGML. HTML
follows the SGML/XML specificatin standard too).
In terms to help the (La)TeX document editiong, there exist several GUI
capable to find erros, insert simbols and commands, dvi viewer integrations,
To person that does not have (La)TeX knowledge or to person that does not
want to editing the source code, there exist the WYSIWYG (what you see is
what you get) editor that process document using LaTeX. Example of these
(free - linux) e-doc
(free - cross platform, but does not support equation yet), and Scientific
(comercial - Windows). Note that there exist several
capable to export LaTeX code. Using WYSIWYG editors as above, will edit
easylly as on Office applications and typeset hight quality document due
to LaTeX. Thus, Note that the LaTeX knowledge for
WYSIWYG help to edit more fast because theses editors acept the LaTeX
key sequence and will permit insertion of (La)TeX commands diretly into
- Oeticker, T. et al., The
so) Short Introduction to LaTeX 2e (2002), CTAN"